Symptoms and management of Mononucleosis

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Mononucleosis commonly referred to as mono is an illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is rarely serious; mono can cause bothersome symptoms that last several weeks.
Symptoms of mono differ with age groups but common symptoms are:

Extreme tiredness
High fevers
Headache
Body aches
Red and sore throat
Swollen glands in the neck or underarms Enlarged spleen
A pink and measles-like rash

 

Complications
Possile complications of mono Spleen ruptures which may lead to pain on the left side of the chest
Liver problems like jaundice.
Blood problems such as anemia or low platelet counts Inflammation of the heart muscle Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membranes, known as meningitis Encephalitis – inflammation of the brain Breathing problems due to swollen tonsils

 

Mode of transmission
The primary mode of transmitting the virus that causes mono through the saliva which is why it is often referred to as the kissing disease. In addition to the above, sharing drinks, toothbrushes, or anything that touches the mouth and saliva can spread mono from person to person. Mono may also be spread through sexual contact, blood transfusions, and organ transplants. Once a person has caught mono, the virus stays in the body forever. The virus may then reactivate at a later time. This does not make a person feel sick, but the person will be able to spread mono to others during this time through their saliva – even if they had mono years ago. As a result, someone may catch mono from another person who doesn’t appear to be sick at all.

 

Diagnosis
This can be made through physical examination, especially in young people who have common symptoms.
Blood tests can identify whether or not a person has had a recent or past infection with EBV.

 

Treatment
Mono is a virus, so antibiotics do not work against it. There is no vaccine for mono, though experts are working on one. There is no known way to cure mono, so doctors recommend managing symptoms until a person feels better. This may include: Pain relievers and fever reducers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen Salt water gargles for a sore throat Having adequate rest

 

Prevention
There is no proven way to prevent mono, but a few simple tips can help avoid it: Washing hands after using the bathroom and before eating
Coughing or sneezing into a sleeve or tissue and washing hands afterward Avoiding people who have mono or who have symptoms of mono until they recover Do not share objects that come into contact with the mouth
Seeking Medical Attention- It is required to seek prompt medical if any of these conditions arise:
Extreme fussy or drowsiness Severe headache or sore throat
Develops a rash without obvious cause Seizure Temperature of 100.4 F
Ruptured spleen requires emergency care immediately.



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