Low sodium in the blood, causes, symptoms & treatment

 

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Hyponatremia is described as inadequate sodium level in the blood. It is also known as low blood sodium. Sodium is an important electrolyte that helps maintain the balance of water within and outside the body cells. It is essential for proper muscle and nerve function also helps to maintain stable blood pressure levels. Low sodium in blood is a medical emergency which can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, and coma.

Causes
Severe vomiting or diarrhea
Use of antidepressants and pain medications
Diuretics intake (water pills)
Consumption of too much water during exercise
Dehydration
Kidney disease or failure
Liver disease
Heart problems
Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
Primary polydipsia
Diabetes insipidus

Risk Factors
Old age
Diuretics intake
Use of antidepressants
Living in a warmer climate
Being on a low-sodium diet

Symptoms of Low Sodium in Blood
Common symptoms of low blood sodium include:
Weakness
Fatigue or low energy
Headache
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle cramps or spasms
Confusion
Irritability

Diagnosis
Blood test to check for low sodium levels. Basic metabolic panel to measure the amounts of electrolytes and minerals in the blood Urine test to check the amount of sodium in your urine if the level is abnormal

Treatment
Cutting back on fluid intake
Adjusting the dosage of diuretics
Medications for symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and seizures
Treating underlying conditions Intravenous (IV) sodium solution infusion

Prevention
Ensure that the water and electrolyte levels are kept in balance to help prevent low blood sodium.
During a typical day, women should aim to drink 2.2 liters of fluids per day.
Men should aim for 3 liters.
It is important to increase your fluid intake if the weather is warm, you are at a high altitude, you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you are vomiting, you have diarrhea, you have a fever, you should drink no more than a liter of water per hour.



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