Common blood cell disorders,Causes & Symptoms

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There are several kinds of blood cell disorders that have significant impact on the health status of an individual. Generally, there are basically three types of blood cells in the blood; they are white blood cell, red blood cell and platelet. The common blood cell disorders will be discussed according to the types of blood cell.


Red Blood Cell Disorder

The main red blood cell disorder is anemia which is a condition characterized with insufficient mineral iron in the body. Iron is needed in the body for the production of the hemoglobin protein which enables the red blood cells to transport oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body.

The normal red blood cell is disc-like in shape. However, as a result of genetic mutation, when the red blood cells contain abnormal hemoglobin molecules that are rigid and curved, the condition is described as sickle cell anemia. The sickle-shaped red blood cells are unable to transport adequate oxygen to the tissues as normal red blood cells will do and can also be stocked in the blood vessels leading to obstruction of blood flow to other parts of the body.



White Blood Cell Disorders

A white blood cell disorder happens when there is either excessive or insufficient white blood cell production by the bone marrows. This condition affects prominently children. Excessive production of white blood cell leads to several conditions including leukemia, measles and whooping cough. Similarly, an auto immune condition and bone marrow disease may lead to over production of white blood cells in the body, although, it is very uncommon. A low level of white blood cells in the blood could make the body susceptible to infections because the body would not be able to fight any infection.

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Platelet Disorders

Blood platelets disorder happen when the body could not provide immediate clot of blood in the case of accident or injury to any parts of the body. A common platelet disorder is von Willebrand disease where the platelets level may be too high or too low and ineffective platelets.

When there is inadequate platelets level in the blood it may lead to severe loss of blood even with a minor injury like needle prink. On the other hand, excessive platelets in the blood may also lead to serious medical condition such as stroke, heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases because the excess platelets could form blood clot thereby blocking major arteries that supply needed blood and oxygen to the organs of the body.

Causes and symptoms of Blood Cell Disorders

A blood cell disorder is a condition characterized with inhibition of the formation and function of the various types of blood cell in the body. The blood cell disorder occurs when there is a problem with the red blood cells, white blood cells, or the circulating cells called platelets, which are vital for clot formation. They are produced in the bone marrow.

The red blood cells are responsible for conveying oxygen to the organs and tissues, while the white blood cells combat infections in the body and the platelets are responsible for the clotting of blood.




The symptoms depend on the form of blood cell disorder.

For red blood cell disorders, weakened muscle, rapid heartbeat, breath shortness, weakness and fatigue, inadequate oxygenated blood in the brain.

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Idiopathic loss of weight, general state of unwell, chronic infections, weakness and fatigue are some of the symptoms associate with the white blood cell disorders.

The symptoms of platelet disorders include frequent skin bruises, delay healing process of any cuts or wounds, non-clot blood following an injury or cut, idiopathic nosebleeds or gum bleeding.




The primary cause of blood cell disorders is as a result of disease condition which may be inherited from the parents and congenital. Some disease conditions that may cause blood cell disorders are iron deficiency, genetic condition known as polycythemia vera and auto immune disease like lupus.

Over or low production of white blood cell due to infections may also lead to blood cell disorders.



Vulnerable groups

Some people are more susceptible to developing blood cell disorders; they include those with low blood iron levels, sinus infection, family history and autoimmune disease.




The diagnosis can be made by ordering for series of tests which include full blood count to know the level of each of the three blood cells type and bone marrow biopsy may be taken to check for abnormal cells in the bone marrow.



Treatment Options

The treatment options will be influence by the nature and stage of the disorder, the age and the health status of the patient.

The common treatment includes:
Using anti clotting medication to treat clotting problem.
Using antibiotics to treat and fight infections.
Taking dietary supplements such as iron, vitamin B-9 and B-12 may be useful in managing anemic condition caused by iron deficiency.
Blood transfusion may be used to replace damaged blood cells in the body.
Surgical intervention to repair and replace damaged bone marrow.

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