What can go wrong with male balls leading to infertility and other sexual problems?

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Testicular disorder

Testicular disorder is one of the two primary disorders that can affect male external reproductive organ. The other one is penis disorder. These disorders have some negative implications on male hormones which can cause sexual dysfunction and infertility problem.


Testicles disorder has to do with some abnormalities in the male testes. The testicles are the two balls inside a sac (scrotum) in the male external reproductive organ. The testes produce male hormones such as Testosterone and that is also where sperms are produced. It is such an important organ and thus any disorder in there exposes male to problems like hormonal imbalances, infertility and other medical illness.

Major Disorders that can affect the testes are;

  • testicular trauma

  • testicular torsion

  • testicular cancer

  • epididymitis

  • hypogonadism

Testicular Trauma

This trauma occurs due to the fragile nature and location of the scrotum. The testicles are located within the scrotum, which hangs outside of the body because they do not have the protection of muscles and bones, they at risk during strenuous activities. This makes it easier for the testicles to be struck, hit, kicked, or crushed, which occurs most often during sports or fight. This can be avoided by protecting the testicles with athletic cups during such time. Any form of injuries that has direct impact on the testes can cause trauma leading to pain, bruise, and swell. A more intense hit on the testes can lead to testicular rupture. With a rupture, there is leakage of blood into the scrotum. A surgery is needed here to save the testicles.

Testicular Torsion

There is a presence of a cord (spermatic cord) inside the scrotum that secures each testes. Any twist in the cord will cut blood supply to the testicles. You can know that such has occurred when there is a sudden and severe pain in the testes, swelling of the affected testicle and sudden enlargement of the scrotum.

Male under the age of 25 are at higher risk of this condition largely due to strenuous activity. This can also occur without a reason.

This medical situation requires immediate surgery as it can lead to permanent damage of the testes if the situation is not attended to on time. In most case, the testicle is removed.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the testicles divide and grow uncontrollable. It starts may starts with tumors and progress to become cancerous. This can affect one testicle and can occur in both young male and adult.

Symptoms include;

  • a lump

  • irregularity or enlargement in either testicle

  • a pulling sensation or feeling of unusual heaviness in the scrotum

  • a dull ache in the groin or lower abdomen

  • Off and on pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum.

What Is Epididymitis?

This is an inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis is the coiled tube that lies on and around each testicle. It is responsible for transporting, storing, and maturation of sperm cells that are produced in the testicles. It links the testicles with the vas deferens (the tubes that carry sperm).

Epididymitis occur when there is an infection or sexually transmitted disease like gonorrhea and chlamydia. Bacteria in the urinary tract can cause this in male above 40 years.

Symptoms includes

  • Scrotal pain and swelling

  • Discharge from the penis

  • Painful urination, and painful intercourse or ejaculation.

  • Fever and abscess (collection of pus).

What Is Hypogonadism?

One of the role of testicles is to secrete the hormone testosterone failure to produce enough hormone leads to hypogonadism. Testosterone hormone plays an important role in the development and maintenance of many male physical characteristics. These include muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass, sperm production, and sex drive. Two major problems are identified here; abnormalities in the testicles referred to as primary hypogonadism. The second problem is the failure of pituitary gland present in the brain to send signals to testicles to produce testosterone. This problem can occur in the early growth of fetus or at puberty and even in adult male. Other factors are testicular trauma, cancer treatment, presence of abnormal sex chromosomes ( Klinefelter’s syndrome),aging ,medications, too much iron in the blood(Hemochromatosis) and undescended testicles.

Hypogonadism can result to the following;

  • Erectile dysfunction

  • Infertility

  • Decreased sex drive

  • Decrease in beard and growth of body hair

  • Decrease in size or firmness of the testicles

  • Decrease in muscle mass and increase in body fat

  • Loss of bone mass (osteoporosis)

  • Enlarged male breast tissue

  • Mental and emotional symptoms similar to those of menopause in women (hot flashes, mood swings, irritability, depression, fatigue)


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