- May 20, 2016
- Posted by: emobile
- Category: Trending Topic
Emobileclinic Trending Topic: LYMPHOMA
Lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is characterized by the formation of solid tumors in the immune system. The cancer affects immune cells called lymphocytes, which are white blood cells.
The lymphatic system is a system of vessels that branch back from virtually all our tissues to drain excess fluids and present foreign material to the lymph nodes. Lymphatic cancers are classified by the type of immune cells affected.
In non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, B-cells and T-cells are affected – both being types of lymphocyte white blood cell with special roles in immunity.
In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the cancer cells are usually an abnormal type of B lymphocyte, named Reed-Sternberg cells. There are many subtypes of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, typed by differences seen under the microscope – but a very high percentage of cases are classed as classic Hodgkin’s.
Types of lymphoma
There are many different types of lymphoma depending on the type of lymphatic cells affected. They are:
Hodgkin’s lymphoma can occur at any age, affects more men than women and the majority will be completely cured. It is diagnosed when a special type of cell is seen under the microscope.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma accounts for all the other types of lymphoma. These can be high grade or low grade and the treatment and prognosis varies.
Common symptoms include:
Swelling of one or more lymph glands
Loss of appetite
Abnormal sweating particularly at night.
Tests usually used to diagnose lymphoma are:
The causes of lymphoma are not yet known. Exposure to radiation and certain chemicals puts some people at higher risk. For people whose immune system is suppressed, exposure to viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus or HIV increases the risk of developing lymphoma.
There are no proven measures to prevent lymphoma, except potentially avoidance of causes such as HIV infection.
Treatment depends on the type of lymphoma, stage of disease and how fast it is likely to grow. Treatment options include:
Stem cell transplant if there is a high likelihood of recurrence in the future.
An individual’s prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as their age and general health at the time of diagnosis. For people diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma, prognosis is generally good, with a five year survival rate Survival rates for younger people are better than that for older people.