Tubal factors are responsible for 20 -30% cases of infertility. It is one of the main causes of infertility in females often caused by diseases which infect the fallopian tubes causing total blockage of the two tubes or one tube or scars (tubal scaring) The diseases cause various build up of scar tissue in the fallopian tubes. This impedes the free movement of a fertilized or unfertilized ovum into the uterus through the fallopian tubes and thus prevents pregnancy and full term birth.

Chlamydia and genital Mycoplasma are two sexually transmitted infections responsible for about 90% cases of tubal factors infertility. Once the females are infected, it progresses and causes tubal damage which can result in tubal factor infertility. These sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like gonorrhoea can stay in female genital tract without being noticed until later years when she attempts to become pregnant.

Another recognised cause of tubal factor infertility is endometriosis which is the presence of endrometrial stroma and/or gland in any area other than the endometrial lining. This can cause tubal obstruction along the length of the tube.

Clinical features of tubal factors infertility includes lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia (from endometriosis) and scars tissue that form after pelvic surgery i.e the laparoscopic evidence of scarring and diagnosis of salpingitis .(This can be viewed by your doctor using hysterosalpingogram or laparoscopy + dye test to establish the extent of the disease)

A visit to a gynaecologist will be needed to determine the extent of the disease. In most cases both couple are treated for possible STI so as to prevent re-infection. Antibiotics are administered and surgery may be needed to open the lumen of the fallopian tubes for pregnancy to be achieved. However the success of tubal surgery is poor, minimal and ineffective globally. IVF offers a better treatment options for tubal diseases.


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