Common Placenta Disorders


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Pregnancy The role of placenta in pregnancy and fetal development cannot be underestimated as it is responsible for the provision of oxygen, nutrients and filtering of fetal waste during pregnancy. More importantly, it aids hormone production and protects the fetus from bacteria and infections. The blood-rich placenta is joined to the uterine wall and connects to the baby by way of the umbilical cord.What happens when something goes wrong with the placenta?

Ceasarean section delivery is often resulted to in most cases of placenta disorders .The placenta attaches itself to the top or side of the uterine wall. However, at times, it may grow or attach to the uterus in a way that can cause health problems.

Several factors determine the health of the placenta, including:
History of smoking cigarettes
High blood pressure
Multiple gestation pregnancy
Maternal blood-clotting disorders History of uterine surgery such as a cesarean delivery
History of placental problems
Maternal substance abuse, such as cocaine use
Abdominal trauma, such as from a fall or blunt trauma
Maternal age
Premature rupture of membranes

Common Placenta Disorders
Placenta previa: is a condition in which the placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus very low down. In doing so, the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix. The condition may resolve as the pregnancy progresses. It is most common in women who are:
Black and of other minority races Older
Have a history of abortion,
cesarean delivery or other uterine surgery
Carrying a multiple gestation pregnancy
Placenta previa can cause severe vaginal bleeding both before and during birth, placental tear, increased risk for fetal infection, bleeding, contractions and preterm labor among others.

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Placental abruption: occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus during pregnancy which can be either partial or complete. High blood pressure can raise the risk of placental abruption. It occurs mostly in the third trimester and a leading cause of fetal and newborn death. It also causes high rates of premature delivery and fetal growth restriction. Its risk can be influenced by abdominal trauma, premature rupture of the membrane, use of illicit drugs like cocaine, smoking, history of a prior placental abruption, uterine defects, maternal high blood pressure or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, circumvallate placenta.




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