Causes,Symptoms, Treatments and Prevention of Dysplasia

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A condition characterized by an abnormal growth of cells that leads to enlarged tissues or pre-cancerous cells is known as Dysplasia. Developmental dysplasia is common in children, however, when adults experience dysplasia; it is usually linked to an increase in abnormal cell growth. There are several kinds of dysplasia with each having different risk factors linked to them.

Types of dysplasia
Its occurrence is not limited to any part of the body. While there are hundreds of different types of dysplasia, some of the most common forms of dysplasia in children and adults are outlined below.

Developmental dysplasia: this occurs in children and is usually developmental, and can be present as early as a child’s fetal stages.

Hip dysplasia: In children, hip dysplasia is usually called developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Hip dysplasia either means that the hip joint is in the wrong shape or that the hip socket is not in the correct place to cover and support the leg bone. This causes more wear and tear on every part of the hip joint.

Skeletal dysplasia: is responsible for the disorders known as dwarfism, brittle-bone disease, and cherubism.They are caused by a genetic mutation, and can generally be diagnosed in a fetus or infant.

Ectodermal dysplasia: this may be seen at birth, while others may take years to be diagnosed correctly. It affects the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. Ectodermal dysplasias are genetic, meaning they can be passed on to children. They are caused by genetic mutations. Dysplasia as abnormal growth When found in adults, dysplasia usually refers to the abnormal growth of cells or tissues. When these cells continue to grow, they can create tumors. Dysplasia can occur on any number of tissues in the body, but is most commonly found in adults in a few different forms.

Cervical dysplasia: abnormal cells that grow on the surface of the cervix.
Cervical dysplasia is divided into two categories: Low-grade cervical dysplasia and high-grade cervical dysplasia. While low-grade cervical dysplasia progresses slowly and often gets better on its own, high-grade cervical dysplasia can lead to cervical cancer.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): it occurs in the marrow of the bones. This abnormal growth can mean that the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells for normal bodily functions. It usually occurs in older adults. While some people affected with MDS may be young, most cases involve people older than 65.
Hip dysplasia in adults: adults who have been diagnosed with hip dysplasia have likely had undiagnosed dysplasia since childhood just that it was not discovered early.

Causes of dysplasia
The causes of dysplasia remain clearly a discourse among professional. However, mutations in a developing fetus’ DNA have been found to be responsible for many types of developmental dysplasia such as skeletal and ectodermal dysplasia. In adults, there may also be a connection with diet, but no definitive results have come forward yet.

Hip dysplasia has been linked to family history, females, and improper swaddling. If a baby is breech, born prematurely, or exposed to large amounts of radiation, they are also more likely to develop hip dysplasia. The presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the body is also a cause especially cervical dysplasia. People with weakened immune systems may be more at risk of cervical dysplasia. Chemicals from cigarette smoke are found in high concentrations in cervical fluids, increasing the risk of these cells becoming abnormal.

Symptoms
Dysplasia affects many areas of the body; the symptoms are unique to the type of dysplasia;

Cervical dysplasia: this usually shows no symptoms. Though women with genital warts have been exposed to HPV, it is a different type to the HPV linked with dysplasia.

Hip dysplasia: the most common sign of hip dysplasia is hip pain. There may also be a snapping noise in the hip or aching pain in the groin that lasts for months.

Myelodysplastic syndromes MDS: patients may show no symptoms at all. A routine blood test may reveal a reduced red cell count, platelet count, or white blood cell count.

Ectodermal dysplasia: The different types of ectodermal dysplasia affect the hair, teeth, nails, skin, and sweat glands in different ways. Many abnormalities can arise, such as brittle hair, abnormal teeth, discolored toenails, and dry, scaly skin.
Skeletal dysplasia: short stature or slow growth, abnormally large head, short limbs, joint stiffness, curved bones, and crowded teeth can all signal one of the many types of skeletal dysplasia are the common symptoms.

Treatment
Treatments for dysplasia center on reducing the symptoms. Additional treatments are case -specific. Some common treatments are listed below. Skeletal dysplasia treatment includes: Growth hormones Braces to improve teeth crowding Back braces to improve spine curvature Surgery
Ectodermal dysplasia treatment includes: Patients with dental defects should practice regular dental hygiene

Topical creams for patients with skin symptoms Antibacterial scalp treatments Saline sprays for the nose and eyes if they are dry

Cervical dysplasia treatment includes: Laser surgery – lasers are used to destroy abnormal cervical tissues

Cryocauterization – using extremely cold temperatures to destroy abnormal cells Loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP) – a thin loop wire scrapes away visible abnormal cells in the cervix
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) treatment includes:
Stem cell transplant is considered the only treatment for MDS. If this is not an option, supportive methods such as blood transfusions and blood cell growth factors are used.

Preventing dysplasia
There is a great need for people to maintain a healthy diet in order to reduce their chance of developing avoidable types of dysplasia. As dysplasia is seen as a precursor to cancer, antioxidant supplements may help reduce the damaging free radicals which can lead to dysplasia. Quitting smoking cigarettes may also reduce the risk in some cases.



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