Causes, Symptoms and Management of Menopause

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Menopause is a stage in a woman’s life characterized with a decreasing level of estrogen hormone and resulting in complete cessation of menstruation. It is the last phase of a reproductive life of a woman when she would no longer be fertile and able to experience menstrual period like she used to do before.
The age menopause sets in varies from one woman to another, however, the common average age is 40 and 50 years across the female reproductive world. When a woman fails to menstruate for a period of 12 months, menopause may be said to have set in.


Vagina dryness
Vaginal itching and discomfort
Irregular menstruation
Reduced fertility
Sudden upper body heat
Sleep disorder
Urinary problems
Night sweats
Mood swing
Lack of concentration
Excessive loss of hair
Reduction in breast size
Abdominal fat build up

Decreased production of estrogen and progesterone hormones
Ovarian disorder
Insufficient enzymes secretion
Hysterectomy surgery (the uterus – womb – is surgically removed)
Infections such as mumps, malaria, varicella etc.
Member of a multiple birth particularly a twin




Age of the patient is an important factor used by a doctor to diagnosed menopause. Menstrual history of the patient is also important tip to diagnosing the condition. There also blood tests that can be recommended in diagnosing the condition, they include:
Hormone profile tests particularly FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and estradiol (estrogen) as well as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)


Treatment depends mostly on the medical history and the nature of the symptoms of the patient. The following are some of the treatment options available in managing the effects of menopause:
Medication to treat hot flashes arising from menopause.
Omega 3s supplements may also be recommended to relieve depression and distress.

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Engaging in regular slow exercise
Intake of lower doses of antidepressant medications may also be effective in managing menopausal symptoms.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be used to manage vaginal dryness, itching, discomfort amongst other symptoms. It must be stated here that HRT reduces colorectal cancer risk, prevents osteoporosis and effective management of menopausal symptoms, however; it may increase the risk of breast, ovarian, uterine cancers, increases the risk of heart diseases and stroke.

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