”At any moment when the fallopian tube is not functional or other impediments to fertility are present, the function of the fallopian tube is substituted by IVF”

Emobileclinic Trending Topic: The IVF Principles

One of the most effective and successful advanced management of infertility is In vitro Fertilization (IVF). This assisted reproductive technology is a multi stage procedure with the sole aim of ensuring that infertile couples do have babies of their own

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In natural conception, fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube and performs specific functions:

picking up the ovulated oocyte

providing a good environment for fertilization to occur

 Conveying the resulting embryo to the uterus for possible implantation.

At any moment when the fallopian tube is not functional or other impediments to fertility are present, the function of the fallopian tube is substituted by IVF.

Brief notes on IVF

The aims of IVF are the retrieval of eggs from the ovary, fertilization in the laboratory, and successful transfer of the resulting embryos in the uterus.

The ovaries are stimulated with injection. During this procedure, the ultrasound is used to guide a hollow needle directly into each follicle. The liquid which surrounds each egg is then aspirated. The fluid is carried to the laboratory, where the egg is separated from the remainder of the fluid and placed in a petri dish filled with nutrient media for the purpose of fertilization.

The eggs are mixed with sperm in the laboratory by adding sperm to the petri dish containing the egg. In cases of severe male infertility, the sperm may not be able to penetrate the egg and therefore a procedure called intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (or ICSI) must be utilized. In this procedure, each egg is picked up by a holding pipette and then is injected with one sperm. Fertilization by ICSI is not as efficient as conventional insemination in which the sperm are simply added to the egg, but it is an excellent way to achieve fertilization in cases where conventional insemination would surely fail.

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With the successful fertilization of the eggs, the resulting embryos are kept in the incubator for 72 hours before eventual transfer to the body. Embryos are most commonly placed into the uterine cavity by trans-cervical transfer. 

The embryo transfer process is critical to the success of all high-tech fertility procedures. Even perfect quality embryos placed into a perfectly prepared uterus may fail to implant during an IVF cycle if they are not placed in a correct location or if a uterine contraction (cramp) causes the transferred embryos to move from their proper location.  Cursory attention must be observed during this critical part of the fertility process.

In most instances, progesterone supplementation is used after embryo transfer – during the ‘luteal phase’, or second half of a woman’s cycle, to help ready the endometrium to receive an embryo for implantation. The most common dose is 200 mg vaginally twice daily. The progesterone is continued until the end of the first trimester if the pregnancy is successful, or until the second negative pregnancy test.

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