A sudden force that weakens and breaks the bone-Fracture

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Accidents can occur anytime and anywhere. It can involve human beings, our properties and even any parts of the human body. An accident involving the bone and leading to a broken bone is known as fracture. It is a sudden force that weakens and breaks the bone.

The bone becomes broken when it is impacted by a higher force or pressure than it can bear or support, fractured bone ranges from a partial break to full multiple break and can be crosswise or lengthwise, single or multiple breaks.

 

Types

There are basically two types of fractures namely open and closed.
A fracture is said to be open if the broken bone tear the skin leading to high risk of infection as a result of the exposure of the bone and skin. On the other hand, a closed fracture occurs when there is no tearing of the skin.
Young children have higher risk of fracturing their bones because of their softness. Young children bones however don’t usually breaks but bends making them susceptible to what is referred to as incomplete fracture (a condition of partial break of the bone).
Several forms of incomplete fractures include:
Greenstick fracture: a condition where one side of the bone is bent and the other is broken
Buckle or torus fracture: occurs where the bone is broken on a side leading to a raised buckle on the other side.
A complete fracture can occur at any age. They can be grouped by the way the bone is affected.
Non-displaced fracture: occurs where the bone is broken into pieces and can be aligned in place.
Displaced fracture: occurs where the bone is broken into pieces that cannot be aligned.
Hairline fracture: a thin crack in the broken bone.
Single fracture: broken bone in only one place.
Compression fracture: a crushing bone
Comminuted fracture: multiple crushing of the bone into three or more pieces.
Segmental fracture: broken bone in two places making at least one part of the bone floating and unattached.

 

Causes

Some common causes of fractures include falls, domestic and auto accidents, gunshots, injuries sustained in sporting activities, strikes on the body.

 

Vulnerable group

No one is immune to having a fracture. However, people with less bone density are more susceptible to having fracture. Several factors that influence low bone density are osteoporosis, endocrine and intestinal disorders, physical inactivity, corticosteroids, old age, smoking and alcoholic intake.

 

Symptoms

Generally, a fracture is always comes with intense pain immediately the injury happened. It also brings about severe discomfort especially when the affected part is moved or touched. Other symptoms are:
Dizziness arising from shock
Snap or grinding sound when the injury happens
Inflammation of the affected area
Redness and bruising in the injured area
Deformation of the injured area

 

Diagnosing

Following a visual examination, the doctor will request for an X-ray to diagnose a fracture. The x-ray provides a detailed image of the bone and indicates any breaks. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan) may be ordered for further diagnoses.

 

Treatment

The main goal of managing fracture is to put broken bone pieces back into their proper position and allow them to heal. In the healing process, it is important not to move the broken parts until the completion of the healing. A new bone is usually formed around the edges of the broken pieces connecting then when the bone is healed completely.

It is also important to prevent possible complications that may arise in the healing process with the use of drugs to control pain during the healing process.

The location and the type of the fracture will dictate which treatment options will be used.
Some fractures required the use of a cast typically made of plaster or fiberglass which will prevent the bone pieces from moving while they heal.

Traction administered through pulleys and weights system which involves stretches the muscles and tendons around the broken bone is another treatment option for fracture. The system provides a gentle and pulling motion and positioned in a metal frame on the bed.

Surgical intervention in the name of open reduction and internal fixation is needed in complex cases. This procedure involves repositioning of the bones into their normal alignment and then connected mostly with metal plates and screws as well as insertion of rods through the center of the bone.

External fixation is used to prevent the broken bones from moving. Pins or screws are placed into the bone above and below the fracture site. These pins or screws are then connected to a metal stabilizing bar outside the skin. The bar holds the bones in place to heal.

 

Prevention

Fractures appear unpreventable because of the inevitability of accident. However, having a strong bone may reduce the vulnerability to having fracture. Some of the ways to having a healthy and maintaining strong bone include a healthy diet and regular exercise. Foods rich in calcium and vitamin D can promote strong bones. Weight-bearing exercises, in particular can be effective in preventing fracture.



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