A disorder of blood circulation-Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a disorder of blood circulation characterized with narrowing and obstruction of the bloods vessels outside the heart and the brain which often resulted in pain and weakness especially on the legs and feet. It can happen in the arteries or veins and specifically affects the supply of blood and oxygen to the arms, kidneys as well as stomach and intestines.

There are basically two types of PVD which are: functional and organic.

Peripheral Vascular disease is said to be functional when there is no damage to the structure of the blood vessels rather there is the widening and narrowing of the blood vessels as a result of change in temperature and signals from the brain. The narrowing contributes to low blood flow.

On the other hand, an organic PVD occurs when there are changes in blood vessel structure like inflammation, plaques and tissue damage.

 

 

Causes

The causes are dependent on the types of the peripheral vascular disease. Some of the causes of functional PVD are cold temperature, emotional stress, and allergic response to use of certain drugs, as well as exposure to vibrating machinery or tools.

For organic PVD, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoking, swollen blood vessels, infections and defective muscular structure are some of the causes.

 

 

Symptoms

Claudication
Reduction in hair growth
Pale limb
Fatigue and pain in the legs and feet
Numbness
Severe burning sensation

 

 

Complications

Prolong healing process of wound
Death of tissue which may result i limb amputation
Impotence
Pale skin
Blood stream infections
Heart attack
Stroke
Death

 

 

Diagnosis

The condition may be diagnosed through any of the following methods:
Doppler ultrasound
Ankle- brachial index
Magnetic resonance angiography
Computerized tomography angiography
Magnetic field imaging
X-ray imaging

 

 

Treatment

Engage in regular and effective exercise
Quit smoking
Reduce weight in case of obesity
Use of relevant medications to prevent blood clot, lower high cholesterol, reduces blood sugar level
Surgical intervention in case of artery blockages such as angioplasty or vascular surgery may be required.

 

 

Prevention

Desist from smoking
Regulate the blood sugar level in case of diabetes
Regular exercise to shed weight
Consume healthy diet that is low in saturated fat
Take steps toward lowering the cholesterol and blood pressure levels.

 



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