A condition that blocks the drainage system of the liver- Hepatic Vein Thrombosis

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Hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) is an obstruction in the veins of the liver caused by a blood clot. It is a condition that blocks the drainage system of the liver, which impedes blood flow back to the heart. The liver stops getting the fresh oxygen it needs to function when there is improper blood flow. This can severely damage the liver and can lead to liver failure.

Causes

Inherited blood disorders
Liver cancer
Liver trauma
Infections
Vein inflammation
Birth control pills
Pregnancy
Immunosuppressive drugs
Autoimmune disorders
Inflammatory disorders
Connective tissue disorders

Symptoms

Nausea and vomiting
Vomiting blood
Unexplained weight loss
Enlarged spleen
Swelling of lower limbs
Abdominal pain
Jaundice
However, there may be no symptom in some people until the liver is damaged.

Diagnosis
It can be done through:
Medical history o the patient
Physical examination
A blood sample know if the liver is working properly
An imaging tests if the blood test results show liver damage.
An ultrasound of the liver to check its size and for signs of damage
A computed tomography scans to look for obstructions and damaged tissue
A liver biopsy if your doctor spots abnormalities in your liver
Hepatic vein catheterization

Treatment

Medication: use of fibrinolytic drugs to dissolve blood clots and anticoagulants to prevent blood clots.
Surgery: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty may be done to widen your hepatic vein to improve blood flow.

During the procedure, a surgeon will feed a catheter into the blocked vein. The catheter has a deflated balloon at the tip, which the surgeon will inflate once it’s in the vein. This causes the vein to widen. Once the vein is wide enough, the surgeon will insert wire mesh into the vein. This holds it open.

Your surgeon may use transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunting to redirect the blood flow away from the liver. This will release pressure on the portal vein.

Complications
Its complication does lead to liver failure. Liver transplant is highly needed in this instance; people with liver failure who do not receive a transplant may have a three-year life expectancy.

The effectiveness of the treatment depends on many factors, including:

Blockage location
Speed of treatment
Type of treatment
The underlying cause of your HVT

Have a regular checkups with your doctor



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